Doctors say these are the signs of type 1 diabetes, including fatigue

Doctors say these are the signs of type 1 diabetes, including fatigue

Doctors say these are the signs of type 1 diabetes, including fatigue

You or someone you know probably has diabetes. the American Diabetes Association states, “In 2019, 37.3 million Americans, or 11.3% of the population, had diabetes. Almost 1.9 million Americans have type 1 diabetes, including about 244,000 children and adolescents.” As if the statistics weren’t alarming enough, type 1 diabetes is on the rise, according to data released in 2020 by the Centers for Disease Control and Preventionbut the reasons for this are not clear. A study published in National Library of Medicine explains: “Genetic factors alone cannot explain such a rapid increase in incidence; therefore, environmental factors must be involved. Lifestyle factors have classically been associated with type 2 diabetes. However, there is also data linking obesity and insulin resistance to type 1 diabetes (accelerator hypothesis). Cholesterol also correlates with the incidence of type 1 diabetes. This may be mediated by the immunomodulatory effects of cholesterol. There is considerable interest in early life factors, including maternal diet, mode of delivery, infant feeding, childhood nutrition, microbial exposure (hygiene hypothesis), and antimicrobial use in early childhood. Distance from the sea was recently shown to be negatively correlated with the incidence of type 1 diabetes.” A lack of sun exposure and little vitamin D values ​​are considered as possible contributing factors to an increase in type 1 diabetes. However, these are not the only areas. In addition, the gut microbiome is also an issue. The study states, “The microbiome is affected by many of the factors mentioned above, including the mode of birth, infant feeding, exposure to microbes, use of antibiotics, and dietary habits.” To learn more about type 1 diabetes, too learn, read what the experts say about Eat This, Not That! health over chronic illness.

1

What you should know about type 1 diabetes

Young sick girl with insulin pump injection on her arm

jennifer sherr, MD, PhD, Yale Medicine Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology&Diabetes tells us, “Type 1 diabetes is a autoimmune disease. This means the body attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leaving someone with type 1 diabetes dependent on exogenously administered insulin. Although formerly known as juvenile diabetes, the condition can be diagnosed in both children and adults. Insulin was discovered a century ago and with insulin therapy, type 1 diabetes is now a chronic condition that can be treated with insulin therapy. More recently, the advent of various diabetes technologies has significantly improved the care of people with type 1 diabetes. Having type 1 diabetes means that people with the condition and their families need to consider a variety of factors to keep their glucose levels stable: the food they eat, physical activity, and stress can all make glucose levels more variable. Newer technologies are helping to offset some of this burden. The goal of treatment is for the person with diabetes to control the condition rather than have type 1 control them. People with type 1 diabetes can do anything. Dana Ellis Hunnes PhD, MPH, RD is Senior Nutritionist at UCLA Medical Center, Assistant Professor at UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, and author of the new book Cambridge University Press. RECIPE FOR SURVIVING adds: “Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which your own body destroys all of its insulin-producing cells, the beta cells, in the pancreas. Without insulin, we can’t remove the glucose in our blood and use it in our cells, and that can lead to very adverse effects in people with type 1 diabetes.”

2

The difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes

insulin

insulin

dr Sherr explains, “Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which a person’s ability to make their own insulin decreases over time as the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas are destroyed. In type 2 diabetes, individuals with the condition continue to produce insulin and the underlying problem is primarily insulin resistance. For this reason, therapies other than insulin, which must be injected, can be used for patients with type 2. This includes oral medications as well as other active ingredients that can be administered weekly. It is important to understand that there is no “bad” form of diabetes. Ultimately, both must try to keep glucose levels as close to normal as possible to avoid long-term complications that can occur with sustained elevated glucose levels.” Hunnes says: “Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. Type 2 diabetes is caused almost exclusively by environmental aspects of our lives, namely too much fat and an unhealthy diet with too many processed foods and especially too many processed carbohydrates. And with type 2 diabetes, our pancreas still produces insulin. We just aren’t able to use it effectively, and a type 1 diabetic pancreas can’t produce insulin.”

3

Signs of type 1 diabetes

with closed eyes drinking clean mineral water, closeup, young woman holding glass

with closed eyes drinking clean mineral water, closeup, young woman holding glass

dr Sherr says, “Because someone’s body either doesn’t produce enough insulin (type 1) or has insulin resistance that leads to high blood sugar levels (type 2), similar symptoms are seen. This includes:

Frequent urination (including needing to wake up overnight to urinate)

Increased thirst

fatigue

weight loss

Stomach upset/nausea/vomiting

Increased hunger

headache

Especially if someone has increased thirst or urination, they should be checked for diabetes.”

Robert Alesiani, PharmD, BCGP, Chief Pharmacotherapy Officer at Tabula Rasa HealthCare says the following signs to watch out for.

“Increased thirst

Increased urination

Increased hunger

Blurred vision

weight loss

irritability or restlessness

Increased feelings of sedation and weakness.”

4

Complications of type 1 diabetes

dizzy

dizzy

according to dr Sherr: “Complications of diabetes include both acute and long-term complications. Acute complications include the risk of severe hypoglycemia, which means that glucose levels are very low and the person with diabetes needs someone’s help to treat it. This can result in the person with diabetes passing out or having a seizure. In addition, people with diabetes can develop diabetic ketoacidosis. This occurs when there is not enough insulin and glucose levels remain high for an extended period of time. Because Insulin is Required by Your Body When we use the sugar and carbohydrates we eat, the body looks for alternative sources of fuel. The fuel used comes from the breakdown of our fat cells. As fat cells break down, it can acidify blood pH and cause repeated episodes of vomiting and mental status changes. For people with diabetes, staying on insulin via injections or pumps is important to avoid this problem. Living with a chronic condition also puts diabetics at higher risk for depression and/or anxiety. Studies have also shown increased rates of eating disorders in diabetics. Long-term complications of diabetes include kidney disease (nephropathy), nerve damage (neuropathy), and eye damage (retinopathy). In addition, people with diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular events, stroke, and heart attacks. However, by keeping glucose levels as close to normal as possible, studies have clearly shown that the risk of these long-term complications can be significantly reduced.”

5

The role of insulin and glucose

man at breakfast

man at breakfast

dr Sherr explains, “Glucose and insulin are closely related. Whenever we eat carbohydrates or sugar, the body breaks them down into glucose. Glucose then has to get into our cells. Insulin is key to getting insulin into these cells. In people with type 1, we need to replace insulin by giving it subcutaneously (either by injection or an insulin pump).” Hunnes tells us, “Insulin is not an option. It’s a necessity. Everyone needs glucose for optimal health, and the role of glucose and type 1 diabetes is when someone has taken too much insulin and their blood sugar is low. They may need to take a glucose pill to get their blood sugar up to normal levels.”


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